Nuclear energy, in the form of radioisotopes, can be used in medicine, agriculture and industry. As well as being used for research and training, many of these reactors produce medical and industrial isotopes.The use of reactors for marine propulsion is mostly confined to the major navies where it has played an important role for five decades, providing power for submarines and large surface vessels. 5. Such isotopes are ideal for tracing many bodily processes with the minimum of discomfort for the patient. This energy is released by splitting of a nuclei in to two. The role of fusion in nature can hardly be exaggerated: it is fusion that has powered the stars for billions of years. One frequently voiced objection to nuclear power is the highly radioactive waste it produces. In today's high-tech telecommunications world, there is a great demand for lightweight, durable and versatile polymer covers, for example for cables. Most medical radioisotopes made in nuclear reactors are sourced from relatively few research reactors, including: Of fission radioisotopes, the vast majority of demand is for of Mo-99 (for Tc-99m), and the world market is some $550 million per year. Environmental uses of nuclear technology 6. A process of marker-assisted selection (or molecular-marker assisted breeding) is used to identify desirable traits based on genes. I might also mention brachytherapy, which the IAEA is helping to apply in all our developing Member States in Asia. The IAEA helps in formulating such rules. In U.S. the nuclear energy is the second largest source of electricity and it constitutes a significant contribution to U.S. energy security. The uses of radioisotopes in therapy are comparatively few, but important. The same technology that has made the world smaller and brought us closer is the one that introduced terrible new dimensions to warfare, including the bombardment of cities far behind the lines of battles. It is the nuclear energy. I shall also not repeat in this lecture what I said about the pros and cons of nuclear power and the likelihood of and need for a more general revival of the nuclear option, which has suffered stagnation in much of the Western industrialized world during the last 15 years but which is espoused in some of the rapidly developing countries in Asia. However, in medical imaging, the cost of Mo-99 itself is small relative to hospital costs. As you will know, the five million inhabitants of the island of Negros in the Philippines obtain all their electricity from geothermal plants. Fusion is therefore not only the source of solar energy but also of all fossil and most renewable forms of energy available on our planet. Medical diagnosis and treatments 8. If smoke enters the detector it absorbs the alpha particles and interrupts the current, setting off the alarm. UK Government policy is to have a wide mix of energy supplies, so we use nuclear alongside other energy sources, such as gas and solar. Where it cannot be obtained from streams and aquifers, desalination of seawater, mineralised groundwater, or urban waste water is required. By this means, more efficient nitrogen fixing legumes with higher yield and protein content can be identified and selected. See also information paper on Radioisotopes in Water Resources and the Environment. See also information paper on Nuclear-Powered Ships. It records radiation that emits from the body instead of using an external source that generates it, such as an x-ray machine, to help doctors determine what is happening with a person's health. These tracers are generally short-lived isotopes linked to chemical compounds which permit specific physiological processes to be scrutinised. However, the rhetoric and the reality go in opposite directions: carbon dioxide emissions actually continue to rise everywhere. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957. And we know that throughout history fire let loose has brought immeasurable destruction to villages, cities and forests. Indeed, these techniques have become so common, so reliable and so accurate that, in the Western industrialized world, about one patient in every three undergoes some form of radiological procedure - diagnostic or therapeutic. Nuclear energy can be put to numerous productive uses. A second generation of fission reactors is just arriving - for example, the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor which went recently into operation in Japan. 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